Zopiclone has agonist effects (i.e., enhancers) on benzodiazepine BZ1 receptors, associated with the release of GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid . GABA, which reduces the excitability of neurons, is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system; It also promotes muscle relaxation.
This mechanism of action is equivalent to that of benzodiazepines, which have been the most widely used anxiolytics for many decades. Both types of drug bind to the same classes of gabaergic receptor, producing very similar therapeutic effects and adverse reactions.
However, zopiclone affects brain waves to a lesser extent than benzodiazepines during sleep. This drug shortens stage I of sleep (which explains why it reduces sleep latency), but does not alter the REM phase. It also prolongs the stages of slow waves and phase II , which can be positive or in any case is not too disruptive.
It is a fast-absorbing psychoactive drug whose maximum potency is produced within 2 hours of administration, although the effects begin to be noticeable after 1 hour. The average life time ranges between 4 and a half hours and approximately 7 and a half hours; This is why it is effective in treating early awakenings .
Adverse reactions and side effects
Among the most frequent side effects of zopiclone consumption that are related to the central nervous system are excessive sleepiness, decreased cognitive performance (leading to memory impairments, especially in the antegrade), anxiety, symptoms Depressive, muscular and coordination problems.
Other common symptoms include dry mouth, increased and reduced appetite, dyspepsia (digestive disorder characterized by burning, pain and flatulence), constipation and bad breath. A particularly common reaction to taking Zopiclone is the perception of a bitter and unpleasant taste in the mouth .
Headaches, chills, palpitations, psychomotor agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, nightmares, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, hives, muscle spasms, paraesthesia, breathing difficulties (dyspnea) and decreased sexual desire may also occur. However, these adverse reactions are less common than the previous ones.
Excessive consumption of zopiclone can cause coma because, if the dose is high, the depressant effects of this drug on the central nervous system are very significant. However, if some other depressant substance, such as alcohol, is not consumed simultaneously, it is unlikely that the overdose will trigger death.db;